The Four Horns of Daniel Chapter 8

In our Overview of the Bible, under the entry for the book of Daniel we discussed the four world kingdoms--

  • Babylon
  • Media-Persia
  • Greece
  • Rome

Concerning Greece, the Bible teaches that after Alexander the Great died, four horns would arise in his place. The purpose of this page is to name Alexander's four successors and the regions that they ruled. This information was obtained and pieced together from a number of books including The Encyclopedia Americana (1971 edition) and can be traced.

Daniel chapter eight tells us about the takeover of the Medes-Persians (the ram v. 3-4, 20)--

3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.
4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

They were taken over by the Greeks led by Alexander the Great (the rough goat with a notable horn v. 5, 21).

5 And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.

The great horn, Alexander the Great, was broken--he died--and in his place rose up four notable horns.

8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.

22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

After Alexander the great died, there was fighting among the people for who would reign. A single ruler did not arise--he was succeeded by his "diadochoi," or "successors." Four of his generals arose to take power over four main regions--

I. Macedonia
(Macedonia ruled Greece for 200 years.)
II. Asia
(Called Asia Minor today. It is modern day Turkey.)
(generally ruled western portion of Asia Minor in addition to Thrace in Europe.)
III. SyriaSeleucus
(in addition to portions of Asia.)
IV. EgyptPtolemy
(The infamous Cleopatra was the last Ptolemy to rule Egypt.)

The following map does not give the exact location of all of these kingdoms, but may be helpful. Thrace is just east of Macedonia and Greece and extends towards Asia. Syria is north of Israel.


Overview of the Bible

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